Technologies for improving the carbon sequestering ability of the “ACM-soil” biosystem
Today, an innovative approach in the field of agricultural production is actively gaining momentum – this is carbon farming and digitalization of the industry.
Effective development and development of technologies for decarbonization of intensive crop production are required to meet the criteria of the “boundary carbon correction mechanism” and digital technologies that allow controlling the full cycle of crop production. “Smart” devices that measure soil, plant, microclimate parameters and mobile applications come to the aid of farmers and agronomists to determine a favorable time for planting or harvesting, calculate the fertilizer scheme, predict the harvest and much more.
The technologies developed by JSC “SPE “Radiy” will allow the transition of intensive agriculture to the trajectory of sustainable development with the digitalization of the industry, the achievement of its carbon neutrality and with a gradual reduction in the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
Environmentally friendly technologies for the production of “green” hydrogen
JSC “SPE “Radiy” together with GEOHI RAS demonstrated a new approach to the implementation of steam conversion of methane, which converts the technology into the category of environmentally friendly with the production of “green” hydrogen and sequestration of the resulting carbon dioxide. The products of our technology are “green” hydrogen with a low carbon dioxide content and modified natural materials that can be used as affordable fertilizers and agro-meliorants more valuable than the original mineral, namely: a mixture of serpentinite, olivine sand and magnesite – magnesium carbonate. Below are fragments of a laboratory installation and samples of a mineral catalyst and a chemosorbent.
Structural materials for hydrogen energy
A method for producing heat-resistant nanocomposites containing platinum metals has been developed (RF Patent No. 2550472). It is known that platinum metals, especially platinum and palladium, are widely used in hydrogen energy, for example, in hydrogen and methanol fuel cells, where the presence of platinum accelerates both the anode (proton production) and cathode processes (proton reduction and regulated water synthesis).
The new material is capable of accumulating up to 500 volumes of hydrogen in its crystal lattice.
Technologies for safe storage and transportation of hydrogen
Hydrogen energy is a large–scale environmentally friendly production of hydrogen and its widespread use as an energy carrier, energy storage and component of many industrial products. The production and safe storage of hydrogen are the key stages of the technology.
The fundamental problem of hydrogen energy is the large-scale environmentally friendly production of hydrogen. Currently, about 80% of hydrogen is obtained from natural gas and petroleum products by steam conversion. In the endothermic process of steam conversion, about half of the natural gas is burned with the release of combustion products into the atmosphere.
There are the following hydrogen storage technologies: storage of compressed hydrogen gas in high-pressure tanks; storage of hydrogen gas at normal and elevated pressure in underground storage facilities; storage of liquid hydrogen; storage of hydrogen in the form of hydrides; storage of hydrogen in carriers; storage of hydrogen in microspheres; storage of hydrogen in capillary structures.
The aerogel created at the enterprise based on a composite of graphene and carbon nanotubes (RF Patent No. 2662484 Method for producing an electrically conductive hydrophilic aerogel based on a composite of graphene and carbon nanotubes) can be considered as a matrix for storing hydrogen. In the photo, the appearance and structure of the aerogel.
The method for producing aerogel based on a composite of graphene and carbon nanotubes relates to the chemical, electrical industry, environmental protection and nanotechnology and can be used in the manufacture of elastic and flexible conductors, electrically conductive polymer composite materials, sorbents, vibration damping materials, batteries and ultra-capacitors.
At the first stage, colloidal graphene oxide is obtained, for which the powder of intermediate product 1 is first obtained by acid treatment of graphite flakes, filtration, washing, drying and high-temperature treatment of the precipitate for no more than 10 minutes by microwave radiation in a microwave oven with a volumetric radiation density of no more than 0.1 W / cm3. Then the powder of the intermediate product 2 is obtained by treating the intermediate product 1 with sulfuric acid, potassium persulfate and phosphoric anhydride, cooling, filtration, washing and drying of the precipitate. The resulting intermediate product 2 is treated with concentrated sulfuric acid at a reduced temperature. Potassium permanganate is added to the resulting suspension, the temperature is raised to room temperature, hydrogen peroxide is introduced. The resulting colloidal solution is washed, filtered or centrifuged. At the second stage, a hybrid hydrogel based on a composite of graphene and carbon nanotubes is obtained by mixing colloidal solutions of graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes in a volume ratio of at least 12:1, adding an organic reducing agent – D-glucose and heat treatment of the resulting final mixture. At the third stage, the hybrid hydrogel is freeze-dried to produce an aerogel based on a composite of graphene and carbon nanotubes. The resulting aerogel is additionally treated with microwave radiation in a microwave oven. After the third stage, an additional stage of hydrophilization of the resulting aerogel is carried out, treating it with a boiling mixed dilute solution containing 3-9% nitric acid and 0.5-1.5% hydrogen peroxide, at a ratio of T: W from 1: 70 to 1:50 for 10-20 minutes. The resulting aerogel, along with electrical conductivity, has hydrophilicity, has a narrow pore size distribution and is obtained in a safe way.